Andrew Sorensen, live coding. Photo courtesy of Andrew R.
Etymology[ edit ] The etymology of samba is uncertain. It is uncertain whether the African Semba dance is related to the Brazilian Samba, and whether it is older or newer, beyond the superficial similarity of name and style.
In only two Bantu languages does the verb-root "semba" mean "dance", while in others it denotes unrelated things like "hunger" or "cloth" but not "belly".
Samba-enredo[ edit ] Samba-enredo or samba de enredo is a subgenre of Samba in which songs are performed by a samba school or escola de samba for the festivities of Brazilian Carnival. Well in advance of the Carnaval parade, each samba school holds contests for writing the song.
The song is written by samba composers from within the school itself, "Ala dos Compositores" or sometimes from outside composers, normally in "parcerias" partnerships.
Each school receives many—sometimes hundreds—songs, hoping to be the next samba-enredo for that year. After a careful explanation of the parade-theme, many times done by the Carnival Art Director himself, composers may ask questions in order to clarify the synopsis, so they could start writing the samba-enredos.
Samba dancer The schools select the song by process of elimination and usually end up somewhere between five and ten songs. Around this time, the finalist samba-enredos are played with music and are voted on by the leaders of the samba school and the carnavalesco—the director of the school for Carnaval.
The most important night in this process, is called the "final de samba", or samba final, when the samba school decides between two or three samba-enredos. This process normally happens in Brazil from August until November, and today is highly professionalized, with samba-composers hiring fans, producing CDs, banners, and throwing parties to promote their samba-enredo.
It is important to note that the samba-enredo is one of the criteria used by the Judging committee to decide who is the winner of the Carnaval parade competition. While the puxador sings, everyone marching in the Carnaval parade sings the samba-enredo along with him, and harmony is another judging criterion.
It was in Rio de Janeiro that the dance practiced by former slaves who migrated from Bahia came into contact with and incorporated other genres played in the city such as the polkathe maxixethe lunduand the xoteacquiring a completely unique character and creating the samba carioca urbana samba school and carnavalesco Carnaval school director.
During the first decade of the 20th century, some songs under the name of samba were recorded, but these recordings did not achieve great popularity. However, in"Pelo Telefone" "By Telephone" was recorded,  and it is considered the first true samba.
Actually, "Pelo Telefone" was created by a collective of musicians who participated in celebrations at the house of Tia Ciata Aunt Ciata. It was eventually registered by Donga and the Almeida National Library. From that moment on, samba started to spread across the country, initially associated with Carnival and then developing its own place in the music market.
Initially viewed with prejudice and discrimination because it had black roots, the samba, because of its hypnotic rhythms and melodic intonations in addition to its playful lyrics, eventually conquered the white middle class as well.
Bossa nova finally entered the country into the world of samba music. Brazilian percussionist and studio musician Paulinho Da Costacurrently based in Los Angeles, incorporates the rhythms and instrumentation of the samba into the albums of hundreds of American, European and Japanese artists — including producer Quincy Jonesjazz performer Dizzy Gillespiepop singer Michael Jackson and vocalist Barbra Streisand.
Currently, there are hundreds of samba schools on European soil and scattered among countries like Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Sweden, and Switzerland. These stands form poor communities that these people called the favelas later the term became synonymous with the irregular buildings of the poor.
There are some controversies about the word samba-raiado, one of the first appointments to the samba. At the same time, there were the samba-corrido, a line that had more work together with the rural Bahian accent, and the samba-chulado, a more rhyming and melodic style that characterized the urban samba carioca.
It would take the edict of a federal administration to halt the persecution of neighborhood samba groups and to recognize officially their parades. Under Vargas, samba schools and carnaval parades were supported by the state and quickly established themselves all over Brazil. Samba significantly benefited from these political efforts to create a homogeneous national culture.
While certain types of music suggested different racial or class origins, samba dissipated social antagonisms and helped unify a society that varied in its origins, appearance, and ways of living and thinking.
The rural Bahia samba acquired additional names as choreographic variations — for example, the "samba-de-chave", where the soloist dancer faking looking roda in the middle of a key, and when found, was replaced.
With no chorus, the samba is called samba-corrido, which is an uncommon variant. The chants were taken by one singer, one of the musicians, or soloist dancer.
Another peculiarity of Bahian samba was a form of competition that dances sometimes presented: Besides the umbigadacommon to all the bahianian samba, the Bahia presented three basic steps: There is also another choreographic element danced by women:Professor Piccoli, who left politics early last year, said "a review like they've done with Gonski is absolutely necessary".
He acknowledged he was new to the sector but said his initial impressions suggested "all of the motivators [at universities] are in the wrong direction," he said. Year in Review: A New Intensity of Jewish Engagement Hundreds of extremist websites joined together by links have produced an interlocking system of hate speech.
We were on the dance floor. A Critique of DOMAIN, a Dance Show Produced by ARCOS Dance ( words, 3 pages) DOMAIN Dance CritiqueThe event that I attended on September 10 of at pm was DOMAIN, a show of dance translated into A Sci-Fi Transmedia Experiment.
Despite appearing to contradict our understanding of physics, NASA's tests of the device (which has been described by overenthusiastic media as an attempt to make a Star Trek warp drive) inexplicably produced a thrust in If the results were accurate, a much larger version of the device could have incredible implications on future space travel and colonisation, as well as on vehicles and buildings.
Attending a large motor show easily costs in the seven-figure range. "That same money can produce an extravagant and memorable gala event that lasts an evening," says Brauer. South Asian arts - Dance and theatre: Theatre and dance in South Asia stem principally from Indian tradition.
The principles of aesthetics and gesture language in the Natya-shastra, a 2,year-old Sanskrit treatise on dramaturgy, have been the mainstay of all the traditional dancers and actors in India.