Balloch, Cynthia Mei My dissertation studies the impact of banks on macroeconomic outcomes. Chapter 1 explores the effects of bond market growth on the financing decisions of firms, the lending behavior of banks, and the resulting equilibrium allocation of credit and capital. This chapter makes three contributions to understand the impact of bond market liberalization.
The classical tradition of partial equilibrium theory had been to split the economy into separate markets, each of whose equilibrium conditions could be stated as a single equation determining a single variable. Essays finance macroeconomics theoretical apparatus of supply and demand curves developed by Fleeming Jenkin and Alfred Marshall provided a unified mathematical basis for this approach, which the Lausanne School generalized to general equilibrium theory.
For macroeconomics the relevant partial theories were: Keynes sought to supplant all three aspects of the classical theory. Precursors of Keynesianism[ edit ] See also: UnderconsumptionBirmingham School economicsand Stockholm school economics Although Keynes's work was crystallized and given impetus by the advent of the Great Depressionit was part of a long-running debate within economics over the existence and nature of general gluts.
A number of the policies Keynes advocated to address the Great Depression notably government deficit spending at times of low private investment or consumptionand many of the theoretical ideas he proposed effective demand, the multiplier, the paradox of thrifthad been advanced by various authors in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Keynes's unique contribution was to provide a general theory of these, which proved acceptable to the economic establishment.
An intellectual precursor of Keynesian economics was underconsumption theories associated with John LawThomas Malthusthe Birmingham School of Thomas Attwood and the American economists William Trufant Foster and Waddill Catchingswho were influential in the s and s.
Underconsumptionists were, like Keynes after them, concerned with failure of aggregate demand to attain potential outputcalling this "underconsumption" focusing on the demand siderather than " overproduction " which would focus on the supply sideand advocating economic interventionism.
Numerous concepts were developed earlier and independently of Keynes by the Stockholm school during the s; these accomplishments were described in a article, published in response to the General Theory, sharing the Swedish discoveries.
Robertson in his The Fallacy of Saving, in earlier forms by mercantilist economists since the 16th century, and similar sentiments date to antiquity.
In it he attributes unemployment to wage stickiness  and treats saving and investment as governed by independent decisions: This perception is reflected in Say's law  and in the writing of David Ricardo which states that individuals produce so that they can either consume what they have manufactured or sell their output so that they can buy someone else's output.
This argument rests upon the assumption that if a surplus of goods or services exists, they would naturally drop in price to the point where they would be consumed. Given the backdrop of high and persistent unemployment during the Great Depression, Keynes argued that there was no guarantee that the goods that individuals produce would be met with adequate effective demand, and periods of high unemployment could be expected, especially when the economy was contracting in size.
He saw the economy as unable to maintain itself at full employment automatically, and believed that it was necessary for the government to step in and put purchasing power into the hands of the working population through government spending.
Thus, according to Keynesian theory, some individually rational microeconomic-level actions such as not investing savings in the goods and services produced by the economy, if taken collectively by a large proportion of individuals and firms, can lead to outcomes wherein the economy operates below its potential output and growth rate.
Prior to Keynes, a situation in which aggregate demand for goods and services did not meet supply was referred to by classical economists as a general glutalthough there was disagreement among them as to whether a general glut was possible.
Keynes argued that when a glut occurred, it was the over-reaction of producers and the laying off of workers that led to a fall in demand and perpetuated the problem. Keynesians therefore advocate an active stabilization policy to reduce the amplitude of the business cycle, which they rank among the most serious of economic problems.
According to the theory, government spending can be used to increase aggregate demand, thus increasing economic activity, reducing unemployment and deflation.
Samuelson puts it as follows: The producers of these goods will now have extra incomes Henry Hazlittwho considered Keynes to be as much a culprit as Kahn and Samuelson, wrote thatEssays on Finance and Macroeconomics.
Balloch, Cynthia Mei. My dissertation studies the impact of banks on macroeconomic outcomes. Chapter 1 explores the effects of bond market growth on the financing decisions of firms, the lending behavior of banks, and the resulting equilibrium allocation of credit and capital.
Handbook of Macroeconomics Volumes 2A and 2B surveys major advances in macroeconomic scholarship since the publication of Volume 1 (), carefully distinguishing between empirical, theoretical, methodological, and policy issues, including fiscal, monetary, and regulatory policies to deal with crises, unemployment, and economic growth.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro-meaning "large" + economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole. This includes regional, national, and global economies. Macroeconomists study aggregated indicators such as GDP, unemployment rates, national income, price indices, and the interrelations among the.
Buy argumentative plagiarism free essays online from trusted custom writing service. OwnEssays is a perfect place to purchase custom papers and make your academic life easier.
Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
Essays on Macroeconomics and Finance Abstract This dissertation consists of two essays on macroeconomics and finance. Chapter 1 develops a novel theory of. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. the International Finance Section of the Department of Economics of Princeton University. The Section sponsors this series of publications, but the opinions expressed are those of the authors. The Section welcomes the submission of manuscripts for publication in this and its other series. Please see the Notice to Contributors at the back of this Essay.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Essays in International Finance and Macroeconomics by Matteo Maggiori A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of.