Gregory Bateson with his daughter, Mary Catherine. Gregory Bateson died on July 4,at the age of 76, survived by his wife, Lois; three children, Mary Catherine, John, and Nora; and his adopted son, Eric.
Categorising cultures Just what are the differences between cultures? Is it useful to look for patterns or categories to make it easier for us to understand these differences?
Kishan Rana, former Indian ambassador to Germany, points out that categorising cultures offers both advantages and disadvantages. Looking for categories is a useful tool for analysis and the training of diplomats, and can be used as initial device in preparing for cross cultural encounters.
However, we should beware of creating and reinforcing stereotypes. Creating categories ignores fact that within any cultural are sub-groups which may have different traits, and also that individuals within a culture may not follow the norm.
Rigid adherence to categories may lead to false assumptions. Lewis Categorisation Richard D. Lewis, author of When Cultures Collide: Managing Successfully Across Cultures London: Nicholas Brealey,divides cultural characteristics into three groups: He argues that people of different nations exhibit characteristics from each of these groups to different degrees.
For example, some linear active traits are: Just what are the differences between cultures? Lewis categorises nations by determining which of the groups their characteristics tend to fall within.
The nations with the most linear active traits are the Germans and the Swiss. Nations showing reactive traits are the Japanese, and to a lesser degree the Chinese. International Communication in an Interdependent World, revised Intercultural communication in education essay.
USIP Press, offers a system for analysing national negotiating styles in terms of the importance which negotiators attach to the broad cultural context in which they operate.
Cultures fall into various places on a continuum from high to low context. Arab culture, for example, is high context as Arab negotiators attach great importance to context, for example history, and make a sharp distinction between the way matters of state should be conducted and matters of commerce.
The first is the realm of principle and morals, and the second, the realm of haggling. Arab negotiators attach high importance to creating bonds of friendship and trust between negotiators, and respect for the honour and dignity of negotiating partners. Less developed, traditional societies tend to give rise to a high context approach.
American society is typical of the low context approach of more developed countries. These cultures view negotiation as an exercise in collective problem solving: Low context cultures subordinate history, personal honour and personal relationships for the purpose of agreement.
These cultural differences can lead to serious misunderstandings not only about the topic of negotiations, but about what it actually means to negotiate. In Minnesota alone books have been written and, more importantly, money has been made providing outsiders with the context they need to make sense of what is, or may be, being communicated in the sparse conversations and non-verbal exchanges which participants in the culture instantly recognise.
In everyday life at least, Americans sometimes negotiate in a low context manner and sometimes they do not. The question to be asked is what kind of contexts give rise to which kinds of approaches to negotiating, and I have already suggested that an analysis of the balance of resources between those involved might be a starting point for an answer to this question.
Syrians in their dealings with Americans and Israelis may take a high context approach, but Syrians in their dealings with the Lebanese or the Kurds, one suspects, may take a low context approach.
The second problem with the high context-low context approach resides in its characterisation of what is meant by low context.
While Cohen and others are at pains to suggest that the low-context, American approach involves only one way of looking at the world which is not necessarily superior to others, they do tend to accept it on its own terms, namely that it is sparse or thin not only in its presentation but also in fact.
By so doing, an opportunity is missed to put the use of language by Americans under the microscope. DiploProjects, Ambiguity Are there cultural differences in the use of ambiguity?
|GREGORY BATESON (1904-1980)||The first is the peace imperative. It seeks to ask the question whether different individuals from all over the world can live peacefully together without looking at their gender, ethnicity, race, and language or religious differences.|
|Majors for Pre-Professional Health Sciences||The Bachelor of Fine Arts B.|
|Intercultural Communication Issues - Sample Essays||Cultural competence in healthcare The provision of culturally tailored health care can improve patient outcomes. InCalifornia passed Assembly Bill that requires patient-related continuing medical education courses in California medical school to incorporate cultural and linguistic competence training in order to qualify for certification credits.|
Drazen Pehar, researcher on language and diplomacy, offers these reflections: Both low- and high-context cultures use ambiguous language to bridge the gap between negotiating parties.
We have both the Dayton Accords and the Rambouillet draft agreement drafted by American negotiators.Intercultural communication (or cross-cultural communication) is a discipline that studies communication across different cultures and social groups, or how culture affects communication.
It describes the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or social context made up of individuals . Interpersonal and Intercultural Communication. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student.
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Discussed in this paper will be intercultural communication and its importance within education. Intercultural communication has many barriers and benefits and these will be reviewed as well as the role this type of communication plays in education.
/5(12). The scope of this study shall include these intercultural communication problems and intercultural communication skills will be observed in the light of education as an institution that fosters cultural diversity and provides opportunities for intercultural communication.
Intercultural Communication. Intercultural Communication in a Global Workplace Wilhemenia M Maxey Hana, A Joint Venture Between Health Snacks and Toka Foods March 09, Professor Marcus Payne Trinity International University The world consists of different countries.