The reason why the father wished to close down the branch was that it appeared to be making a loss. However, it is quite the reverse; if the branch was closed then, the positive contribution from the branch would be lost and overall profits would fall. This is because the indirect costs of production do not vary with output and, therefore, closure of a section of the firm would not lead to immediate savings.
Strategic bombing was used in World War I, though it was not understood in its present Strategic intervention techniques.
The first bombing of a city was on the night of 24—25 Augustwhen eight bombs were dropped from a German airship onto the Belgian city of Antwerp. Led by Charles Rumney Samson the force of four aircraft inflicted minor damage on the sheds.
The raid was repeated a month later with slightly more success. Within a year or so, specialized aircraft and dedicated bomber squadrons were in service on both sides. These were generally used for tactical bombing; the aim was that of directly harming enemy troops, strongpoints, or equipment, usually within a relatively small distance of the front line.
Eventually, attention turned to the possibility of causing indirect harm to the enemy by systematically attacking vital rear-area resources.
The most well known attacks were those done by Zeppelins over England through the course of the war. The first aerial bombardment of English civilians was on January 19,when two German Zeppelins dropped 24 fifty-kilogram pound high-explosive bombs and ineffective three-kilogram incendiaries on the Eastern England towns of Great YarmouthSheringhamKing's Lynnand the surrounding villages.
German airship Strategic intervention techniques Calais on the night of 21—22 February In there were 19 more raids, in which 37 tons of bombs were dropped, killing people and injuring Raids continued in London was accidentally bombed in May, and in July the Kaiser allowed directed raids against urban centers.
There were 23 airship raids inin which tons of ordnance were dropped, killing people and injuring Gradually British air defenses improved. In andthere were only 11 Zeppelin raids against England, and the final raid occurred on August 5,which resulted in the death of KK Peter Strassercommander of the German Naval Airship Department.
By the end of the war, 51 raids had been undertaken, in which 5, bombs were dropped, killing people and injuring 1, These raids caused only minor hampering of wartime production, by later standards. A much greater impact was the diversion of twelve aircraft squadrons, many guns, and over 10, men to air defenses.
Initially the raids generated a wave of hysteria, partially caused by media. This revealed the tactic's potential as a weapon that was of use for propagandists on both sides.
The late Zeppelin raids were complemented by the Gotha bomber, which was the first   heavier-than-air bomber to be used for strategic bombing. The French army on June 15,attacked the German town of Karlsruhekilling 29 civilians and wounding Further raids followed until the Armistice in In a raid in the afternoon of June 22,the pilots used outdated maps and bombed the location of the abandoned railway station, where a circus tent was placed, killing persons, most of them children.
The British also stepped up their strategic bombing campaign. At first the RNAS attacked the German submarines in their moorings and then steelworks further in targeting the origin of the submarines themselves.
The Independent Forcean expanded bombing group, and the first independent strategic bombing force, was created in April By the end of the war, the force had aircraft that could reach Berlinbut these were never used. Interbellum[ edit ] Following the war, the concept of strategic bombing developed.
The calculations which were performed on the number of dead to the weight of bombs dropped would have a profound effect on the attitudes of the British authorities and population in the interwar years because as bombers became larger it was fully expected that deaths from aerial bombardment would approach those anticipated in the Cold War from the use of nuclear weapons.
The fear of aerial attack on such a scale was one of the fundamental driving forces of British appeasement in the s.
Tactical air warfare was developed as part of a combined-arms attack which would be developed to a significant degree by Germanyand which contributed much to the success of the Wehrmacht during the first four years —42 of World War II.
The Luftwaffe became a major element of the German blitzkrieg. Some leading theorists of strategic air warfarenamely strategic bombing during this period were the Italian Giulio Douhetthe Trenchard school in Great Britain, and General Billy Mitchell in the United States.
These theorists thought that aerial bombardment of the enemy's homeland would be an important part of future wars. Not only would such attacks weaken the enemy by destroying important military infrastructure, they would also break the morale of the civilian population, forcing their government to capitulate.
Although area bombing theorists acknowledged that measures could be taken to defend against bombers — using fighter planes and anti-aircraft artillery - the maxim of the times remained " the bomber will always get through ". These theorists for strategic bombing argued that it would be necessary to develop a fleet of strategic bombers during peacetime, both to deter any potential enemy, and also in the case of a war, to be able to deliver devastating attacks on the enemy industries and cities while suffering from relatively few friendly casualties before victory was achieved.
Domestic political considerations saw to it that the British worked harder on the concept than most.A Resource for Teachers, Clinicians, Parents, and Students by the Brain Injury Association of New York State.
The mission of the International Critical Incident Stress Foundation, Inc. is to provide leadership, education, training, consultation, and support services in comprehensive crisis intervention and disaster behavioral health services to the emergency response professions, other .
Assess the value of using strategic intervention techniques in organisations: Theory: “Strategic Intervention is a method for assisting people to find empowering meanings for their life circumstances, discover why they do what they do and how they meet their needs in positive and negative ways, the understanding of which helps to.
Forex on Demand is the comprehensive step-by-step guide to foreign currency trading. Master the world of online currency trading using our educational guides, charts, tools and news. Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or benjaminpohle.com is a systematically organized and executed attack from the air which can utilize strategic bombers, long- or medium-range missiles, or nuclear-armed fighter-bomber.
Properly diagnosing the change environment allows for the application of such strategic intervention techniques as role playing, team development, survey feedback, process consultation, among others.