See Municipal police departments of the United States for a list Municipal police range from one-officer agencies sometimes still called the town marshal to the 40, person-strong New York City Police Department. Most municipal agencies take the form Municipality Name Police Department.
While it is true that one of the purposes of the police is to enforce the law, frequently they do not. Moreover, the police are expected to perform a wide variety of tasks, such as preventing crime, providing services, and maintaining order, which are not accurately described as law enforcement.
Unlike in many other industrialized countries, the organization of American law enforcement is fragmented among different agencies at the local, state, and federal levels of government.
This has several general implications: According to the latest figures from the Bureau of Justice Statistics BJSin there were over seventeen thousand public law enforcement agencies in the United States.
The majority 12, were local police departments operating at the municipal level, employingfull-time sworn law enforcement officers. Because these general-purpose law enforcement agencies are the most visible to the public and the source of the majority of police-citizen contacts, they are the focus of this online entry.
This does not include the private security industry, which is another essential component of American law enforcement.
Policing is a popular course in criminal justice programs, and there is a host of general texts available.
Walker and Katz is a succinct and well-organized introduction to policing, and the material it covers is the basis for raising analytical questions about the role and function of the police. If an anthology is preferred, Brandl and Barlow is timely and includes a fairly extensive list of articles on police theory and practice.
Any of these books could be an anchor text in a specialized course on policing. For graduate students and new researchers to the area, Newburn is probably the most comprehensive anthology, with forty-five articles. Lastly, a useful source for assessing the size and scope of law enforcement in the United States is the Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, conducted regularly by the Bureau of Justice Statistics see Reaves and Hickman for the most recent bulletin.
The functions of the police in modern society. Provides a frank critique of popular conceptions of police work, including public ambivalence toward police power, and uses a sociological and historical framework to explain the police capacity to use coercive force.
The police in America: Classic and contemporary readings. One strength of this collection is its juxtaposition of classic and contemporary readings in police history, discretion, and strategies to demonstrate developments in the field and to promote an informed dialogue on police policies and their empirical bases.
The policing of risk. The changing culture of insurance and responsibility. Edited by Tom Baker and Jonathan Simon, — The authors define the role of the police in modern society as that of information broker. As such, the police produce and distribute knowledge as a part of a larger risk-communication system.
Topics covered include images and expectations, police discretion, the police and serious crime, policing everyday life, the moral hazards of police work, and prospects for change. Still relevant, but should be supplemented with more recent scholarship.
Fairness and effectiveness in policing: Edited by Wesley Skogan and Kathleen Frydl. The National Academies Press. Authoritative review by an expert panel of research on the nature of policing in the United States.
Excellent use of key themes and developments to organize a great deal of information. Suitable for graduate courses on policing.
The last of these provides a useful introduction to policing in the context of postmodernity. Topics covered include number of police agencies and agency size. Police organization in the twentieth century.
In Crime and justice: An annual review of research. Edited by Michael Tonry and Norval Morris, 51— Walker, Samuel, and Charles M.Crimes committed by police officers are by their nature special and deserving of scholarly attention because the law affords police unique rights and responsibilities, including the legal authority to use coercive force, specialized training, and access to weapons not available to ordinary citizens.
There are 17, U.S.
police agencies in the United States which include college campus police, sheriff departments, local police, and federal agencies. The law-enforcement purposes of these agencies are the investigation of suspected criminal activity, referral of the results of investigations to the courts, and the temporary detention of suspected criminals pending judicial action.
In the United States, physical force has been disallowed from police interrogations for more than seventy years. We will discuss the history and rationale behind the abolition of torture and other harsh methods in police interrogations, and discuss modern-day interrogation .
Most, but not all, police scholars favor Egon Bittner’s means-based definition of the police, which defines the police in terms of their capacity to use nonnegotiable coercive force in any situation that appears to require a prompt and . Female police officers were originally hired with the intent that they would assist in the problems related to women and juveniles.
True The United States utilizes a "centralized system" of policing, in which all agencies' policies and procedures are controlled by a national or governmental headquarters.
Related research: A study in Police Science and Management, “Police Crime and Less-Than-Lethal Coercive Force: A Description of the Criminal Misuse of Tasers,” used content analysis of newspaper articles on 24 police officers arrested for crimes involving inappropriate use of Tasers from January to May “The findings indicate .