Martin, 51m The innermost grouping of practices within Ron Jeffries' Agile Circle of Life, are the programming practices. Test Driven Development Simple Design Pair Programming We've already spent a lot of time, in previous episodes, talking about the first two of these practices; so in this episode we'll simply review them, and spend more of our time talking about how they fit into the overall Agile discipline. This is important because being an effective agile team depends, critically, on these practices. Being Agile, depends upon being simple.
I am upset about the number of students who have had several years of Arabic and do not know the difference between an idaafa and a noun-adjective phrase.
In fact, many students do not seem to know the difference between an idaafa and a French horn. The noun-adjective phrase will be taught in the next chapter. The French horn will not.
The idaafa is used to indicate possession in Arabic. Below are some examples of idaafas, their translations into English, and an explanation.
In sentence one we have a standard two-term idaafa. The first term is the thing possessed. It can be in any case depending on its use in the sentence. But, the first term of an idaafa never has nunation.
The second term of this idaafa is in the genitive. Because the second term is indefinite the entire idaafa is indefinite.
Now look at the second idaafa. But we have a difference between this second idaafa and the first idaafa. Because it is definite, it will not have nunation.
But there is something even more important. This means that the first term of this idaafa is definite even though it does not itself have the definite article.
This means that the first term of an idaafa never has the definite article. The third idaafa is indefinite because the second term of that idaafa is indefinite. The fourth idaafa is a definite version of the third. The fifth idaafa has three terms; the last two terms themselves being an idaafa.
The first term is nominative because I put it in the nominative. As you know, the first term of the idaafa will be in the case that the sentence requires. The second term of this idaafa is genitive, because the second term of all idaafas is always genitive.
However, the second term of this idaafa does not have nunation because it is followed by yet another term. Often American students forget to do this.
The sixth idaafa is a definite form of the fifth. Since the last term is definite there is no nunation in this idaafa. Here are the important rules about an idaafa which you must remember: An idaafa consists of two or more nouns.
If the last term of the idaafa is definite, the entire idaafa is definite. If the last term of the idaafa is indefinite, then the entire idaafa is indefinite.
The first term of the idaafa can be in any case required by the use of that word in the sentence. All terms other than the first term MUST be in the genitive case.
The only term in an idaafa that can have nunation is the last term of the idaafa. It will only have nunation if it is indefinite. If you like to memorize lists of things as a means to demonstrating knowledge of a subject, I recommend you study Buddhism.
I know that this explanation may seem repetitive. But you must know these things. If you do not understand what an idaafa is, or do not understand the relationship of the words in an idaafa to each other, you will never understand Arabic above the level of a two year old, or of an American journalist.
One question that I am often asked is: How does a student spot an idaafa? What I tell them is this: Pronoun suffixes are discussed briefly below and in detail in the next chapter.benjaminpohle.com 2 COMMUNICATION AND EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS FOR IT F// LEVEL 3 UNIT 1 AIM OF THE UNIT Communication is a vital skill for any individual.
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2 benjaminpohle.com benjaminpohle.com 1. SYMBOLS The symbols used throughout in these tutorials are S.I. (International System). These are not always the ones used by the examiner.