The Common Core asks students to read stories and literature, as well as more complex texts that provide facts and background knowledge in areas such as science and social studies. This stresses critical-thinking, problem-solving, and analytical skills that are required for success in college, career, and life.
See Article History Braille, universally accepted system of writing used by and for blind persons and consisting of a code of 63 characters, each made up of one to six raised dots arranged in a six-position matrix or cell. These Braille characters are embossed in lines on paper and read by passing the fingers lightly over the manuscript.
Louis Braillewho was blinded at the age of three, invented the system in while a student at the Institution Nationale des Jeunes Aveugles National Institute for Blind ChildrenParis.
His printing of normal letters in relief led others to devise simplified versions; but, with one exception, they are no longer in use. The single exception is Moon typeinvented in by William Moon of Brighton, England, which partly retains the outlines of the Roman letters and is easily learned by those who have become blind in later life.
Books in this type are still in limited use by elderly people, particularly in Great Britain. When Louis Braille entered the school for the blind in Paris, inhe learned of a system of tangible writing using dots, invented in by Capt.
Charles Barbier, a French army officer. It was called night writing and was intended for night-time battlefield communications. The system was first published in ; a more complete elaboration appeared in To aid in identifying the 63 different dot patterns, or characters, that are possible within the six-dot cell, Braille numbered the dot positions 1—2—3 downward on the left and 4—5—6 downward on the right.
The first 10 letters of the Latin alphabet —a through j—are formed with dots 1, 2, 4, and 5.
When preceded by the numeric indicator dots 3, 4, 5, and 6these signs have number values. The letters k through t are formed by adding dot 3 to the signs that represent a through j. Five of the remaining letters of the alphabet and five very common words are formed by adding dots 3 and 6 to the signs representing a through j.
When dot 6 is added to the first 10 letters, the letter w and 9 common letter combinations are formed. Punctuation marks and two additional common letter combinations are made by placing the signs that represent letters a through j in dot positions 2, 3, 5, and 6.
Three final letter combinations as well as the numeric indicator and two more punctuation marks are formed with various combinations of dots 3, 4, 5, and 6. Like the numeric indicator, these signs serve as modifiers when placed before any of the other signs.
Through the application of this principle, the various signs can function in multiple ways. This illustration shows the formation of each six-dot cell and its simplest designated meaning. A universal Braille code for the English-speaking world was not adopted untilwhen representatives from agencies for the blind in Great Britain and the United States met in London and agreed upon a system known as Standard English Braille, grade 2.
In Anglo-American experts again met in London to further improve the system.
A girl reading the Braille edition of a Harry Potter book in the library of a school for the blind. AP Images In addition to the literary Braille code, there are other codes utilizing the Braille cell but with other meanings assigned to each configuration.Baybayin. Baybayin is a pre-Spanish Philippine writing system.
It is a member of the Brahmic family and is recorded as being in use in the 16th century. Most of have at least one, that teacher we remember who cared about us, challenged us, brought out the best in us, that made a difference.
I was lucky enough to have many such educators in my school years, and today I’m joining a group of bloggers to take the time to say thank you. Dec 09, · How to Write Thank You in Spanish Three Methods: Writing A Simple Thank You Writing A More Formal Thank You Cheat Sheet Community Q&A One of the most important things to learn in any new language is how to write or say "thank you"%(6).
Start writing. Now that you have seen these examples of great ways to start off a thank you note, you are ready to write your own notes after you receive a nice gift, attend a dinner party or interview, or someone helps you.
The purpose of letters of acknowledgment is to provide proof that you have received specific documents or a specific type of request. Letters of acknowledgment are often used for anything involved in a legal process. As with any business or professional correspondence, you should begin your letter.